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Research Research Institutes Contractual Management Institute (CMI)

The institute for contracting, law, and sustainable networking

Vision and Mission

CMI Berlin pursues a value-oriented view of contracts and their usage to foster economy, society, environment and the individual. Its activities are based on the concepts of networking and sustainability.

Networks as inter-personal or inter-organizational arrangements imply the understanding of the contract as a tool to blend and to balance the interests of different stakeholders.

The intrinsic values of CMI Berlin’s activities are directed by a vision of sustainability which stresses the need for fair and socially responsible relationships.

Fields of Research

Research objects are the firm and virtual organizations, whether in the public or the private sector, whether profit or non-profit entities. CMI Berlin puts particular emphasis on start-ups and small enterprises which it considers as crucial elements for balancing economic and social developments.

CMI Berlin’s research enables profit as well as non-profit organizations to understand the contract – and in a broader sense: law – as a tool to develop balanced and sustainable relationships. It promotes an enhanced perception of the contract as an instrument of risk and knowledge management and brings a significant benefit to society and economy in respect of corporate social responsibility, sustainability, corporate governance and compliance management.

For the pursuance of these goals, CMI Berlin focuses on

  • the operationalization of the contract to enhance sustainable networking;
  • the generation and implementation of contract and contractual management concepts in cooperation with the private and public sector;
  • the promotion of contract- and law-related knowledge and skills of managers as part of leadership qualification and the development of new concepts for teaching;
  • the enhancement of the understanding of the contract’s interdisciplinary nature and its cultural-specific design.

CMI Berlin’s research on contracting, law and sustainable networking aims at

  • economic growth and social welfare by promoting the contract as a steering instrument on the market as well as on the organization level;
  • a balance of interest in society as well as in business relationships through the promotion of non-adversarial contracting;
  • the success of private as well as public organizations through an optimized use of contracts;
  • fair and sustainable markets by providing contractual concepts that suit the particular challenges in entrepreneurship;
  • new insights into the conditions of sustainable networks through the utilization of jurisprudential modes of thought and operation in non-legal fields of application;
  • the integration of the increasingly divergent fields of contract-related sciences;
  • adequate approaches to deal with the technological, environmental, and social challenges of the future.

Schuhmann, R., & Eichhorn, B. (2020). Optimierungspotenziale für Projektverträge in der internationalen Diskussion. Zeitschrift deutsches & - internat. Bau- & Vergaberecht (ZfBR), pp. 501-507

Schuhmann, R., & Eichhorn, B. (2020). Vertragsrisiken und vertragliches Risikomanagement - Eine Neubestimmung, Zeitschrift Risk Fraud Compliance (ZRFC) 04/2020, p. 156-162

Voigt, S., and Wulf, A. J. (2019), What Makes Prosecutors Independent? Analyzing the Determinants of the Independence of Prosecutors, Journal of Institutional Economics, 15 (1), 99-120

Schuhmann, R., and Eichhorn, B. (Editors) (2019), Contractual Management: A Holistic Approach to a Diverse Issue, Springer Verlag

Eichhorn, B. (2019), The Second-Hand Software Case - Knowledge Management in the Contract Planning Stage, in: Schuhmann, R., and Eichhorn, B. (Editors), Contractual Management: A Holistic Approach to a Diverse Issue: Springer Verlag

Schuhmann, R. (2019), The Tricky Boiler Case - Managing Scope Issues in Project Execution, in: Schuhmann, R., and Eichhorn, B. (Editors), Contractual Management: A Holistic Approach to a Diverse Issue: Springer Verlag

Wittig, F. (2019), The X Virus Case Set - Leeway for Contractual Steering of Hospital Treatment, in: Schuhmann, R., and Eichhorn, B. (Editors), Contractual Management: A Holistic Approach to a Diverse Issue: Springer Verlag

Seizov, O., and Wulf, A.J. (2019), The Disclosure Backlash Case - Information Transparency in Effective Contractual Management, in: Schuhmann, R., and Eichhorn, B. (Editors), Contractual Management: A Holistic Approach to a Diverse Issue: Springer Verlag

Zimmermann, G., and Eichhorn, B. (2019), The Jamaika Coalition Case – Managing Political Coalitions through Contract, in: Schuhmann, R., and Eichhorn, B. (Editors), Contractual Management: A Holistic Approach to a Diverse Issue: Springer Verlag

Seizov, O., Wulf, A. J., and Luzak, J., (2019), The Transparent Trap. Analyzing Transparency in Information Obligations from a Multidisciplinary Empirical Perspective, Journal of Consumer Policy, 42 (1), pp.149-173

Zoghi, F. S. (01-04 May, 2018), Does Inter-firm Trust Matter in Strategic Alliances? Examining the Effect of Inter- firm Trust on Expected Performance, 7th RSEP International Social Sciences Conference, Amsterdam, Netherland

Wulf, A. J. (2018), Bedeutung des Wirtschaftsrechts für die volkswirtschaftliche Entwicklung. Perspektiven der ökonomischen Analyse, Wiesbaden: Springer, pp. 1-239.

Wulf, A. J. (2018), Insights from the German Codification Debate between Thibaut and Savigny for a Uniform Indian Civil Code, Journal of the Indian Law Institute, 60 (2), pp. 121-136.

Schuhmann, R., and Zoghi, F. S., (2018), Survey on Risk Management Practices in Turkish and German SMEs, Athens: ATINER’S Conference Paper Series, NO: SME2017-2391

Schuhmann, R., and Eichhorn, B. (2017), Compliance durch vertragliches Management, ZRFC, Heft 2, pp. 86 - 91

Schuhmann, R., (2017), Projekterfolg durch vertragliches Management. GMP Region Hamburg, Hamburg

Schuhmann, R. and Eichhorn, B. (2017), Reconsidering Contract Risk and Contractual Risk Management, International Journal of Law and Management, Vol. 59 Issue 4, pp. 504-521

Wulf, A., (2017), The Transparent Trap. Analyzing Transparency in Information Obligations from a Multidisciplinary Empirical Perspective. Transparency: where art thou in consumer protection”, University of Exeter conference, Exeter, UK

Wulf, A., (2017), New Paradigms of Knowledge in Law and Economics. Other Forms of Knowledge, Kyoto University Conference, Kyoto, Japan

Wulf, A., (2017), The Lack of Legal Forms for Public Enterprises. An Economic Case Study on the Legal and Institutional Obstacles in Public Enterprises, taking Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER) as an Example. Polish Law & Economics Conference 5th Annual Conference, Warsaw, Poland

Zoghi F.S., (2017), The Effect of Relational Risk Perception on Supplier’s Performance; An Empirical Study on Turkish Strategic Alliances. 4th RSEP International Conferences on Social Science and Economic Studies, Prague, Czech Republic

Zoghi F.S., (2017), SMEs and Contract Management; an Empirical Study on Turkish Companies. 3rd RSEP International Conferences on Social Science and Economic Studies, Vienna

Zoghi F.S., (2017), SMEs and Contract Management; an Empirical Study on Turkish Companies, Journal of Economics, Business, Politics and International Relations, Vol.3 (1), pp.111-136

Zoghi F.S., (2017), Risk Management Practices and SMEs: An empirical study on Turkish SMEs, International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance vol. 8, no.2, pp. 123-127

Schuhmann, R., and Eichhorn, B. (2016), Projekterfolg durch vertragliches Management, projektManagement, pp. 57- 61

Eichhorn, B., Heinze, B., Tamm, G., and Schuhmann, R. (2016), Internet-Recht im E-Commerce, Berlin: Springer

Zoghi, F. S. (2016), Risk Management Practices and SMEs: An Empirical Study on Turkish SMEs, The 3rd International Conference on Advances in Business and Economics (ICABE27- 29 April 2016), Istanbul, Turkey

Wulf, A. J. (2016), Law as Part of Managerial Skills. Reform Proposals for Teaching Law to Business Administration and Economics Students, (English version of “Rechtskompetenz als Teil unternehmerischer Führungsqualität"), Asian Journal of Legal Education, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 1-15

Schuhmann, R., and Zoghi, F.S. (2016), National Culture and Company’s Risk Management: A Survey on risk Management Practice in Turkish and German SMEs, 13the Annual International conference on SMEs, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 25-28 July 2016, Athens, Greece

Wulf, A. J. (2016), Risk-Taking and Entrepreneurship in India. Implications of Social and Cultural Norms for Poverty Alleviation Policies, in: Wulf, C. (ed.). Exploring Alterity in a Globalized World. London et al.: Routledge, pp. 441-453

Schuhmann, R., and Eichhorn, B. (2015), From Contract Management to Contractual Management, European Review of Contract Law, pp. 1 - 21

Wulf, A. J. (2015), Uncertainty as a Challenge for Leadership. The Effect of Cultural, Social and Legal Institutions on Risk-Taking and Innovation in Family Businesses, Paragrana, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 80 – 93

Anil, I., and Çakir, Ö. (2015), Cultural Differences And The Effects On Risk Management Practices: An Empirical Study in Turkish and German SME’s, Conference Paper, 5th Annual International Conference on Innovation & Entrepreneurship, pp. 100 - 103

Wulf, A. J., (2015), Rechtskompetenz als Teil unternehmerischer Führungsqualität. Reformvorschläge für ein Studium des Rechts in den Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Rechtswissenschaft, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 20 – 40

Wulf, A. J. (2014), Institutional Competition of Optional Codes in European Contract Law, European Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 139 – 162

Eichhorn, B., and Schuhmann, R. (2014), Der Inhalt ist alles, die Form nur Ästhetik? - Leichtverständliche Sprache und Visualisierung für Projektverträge, Zeitschrift für deutsches und internationales Baurecht, pp. 211 - 216

Wulf, A. J. (2014), Privatizing Law-Making. An Economic Analysis of Non-Governmental Law-Making in the Field of Contract Law, in: Knoke, M. and Merk, J. et al. (eds.). Das Publicness-Puzzle. Öffentliche Aufgabenerfüllung zwischen Staat und Markt. Berlin: BWV, pp. 401 – 410

Schuhmann, R. (2013), Vertragsleben und Projektleben – Die vertragliche Steuerung der Zusammenarbeit in Projekten, projektManagement, pp. 24 - 28

Wulf, A. J. (2013), Well-Being and Risk-Taking Behaviour. A Case Study of Employee Well-Being Policies in Corporate Japan, Paragrana, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 293 – 306

Wulf, A. J. (2013), Global Perspectives on Risk Taking Behaviour. Using Focused Ethnography to Study Managerial Behaviour, in: Suzuki, S. & Yamana, J. (eds.). Proceedings of the Conference on Research Opportunities for Ethnomethodology. Kyoto: Kyoto University, pp. 126 – 127

Wulf, A. J. (2012), An Evaluation of some Critical Points in the European Commission's Impact Assessment accompanying the Proposal for a Regulation on a Common European Sales Law, in: Ministry of Justice (United Kingdom) (ed.). Responses to the Call for Evidence on the Common European Sales Law. London: Ministry of Justice, pp. 1 – 2

Schuhmann, R. (2012), Vom rechtssicheren zum effizienten Projektvertrag, Zeitschrift für deutsches und internationales Baurecht, pp. 9 - 14

Eichhorn, B., and Schuhmann, R. (2012), Integration von Wirtschaft und Recht: Vertragswissensmanagement, Akademie, pp. 41 - 44

Eichhorn, B., and Schuhmann, R. (2011), Der Vertrag als Kooperations- und Kommunikationstreiber. Vom klassischen zu einem prozessorientierten Vertragsverständnis. In: Ladwig, Kunze, Hartmann (Eds.), Exit matters - Auf dem Weg in die Projektgesellschaft. Frankfurt/ Main, pp. 169 - 203

Research Projects

Practising Risk Management in SMEs

The project „Practicing Risk Management in SMEs“ is part of CMI’s research on risk and contractual management. Representative interviews with more than 270 managers of businesses in Germany and Turkey compare the practice of contractual risk management in Turkey and Germany, investigate cultural difference in risk management between both countries and make recommendations to the business community for best practice in this field. The practical aim is to enable German businesses that operate in Turkey and Turkish businesses that operate in Germany to assess, whether their risk management lives up to the national peculiarities and standards. Cooperation partner is the Marmara University.

The ABC of Online Disclosure Duties

The project “The ABC of Online Disclosure Duties. Towards a More Uniform Assessment of the Transparency of Consumer Information in Europe.” is part of CMI’s research on contractual management. The project investigates how online disclosures, i.e. legal information provided by businesses for consumers online, can be designed in a transparent manner. The aim is to help businesses across the EU to standardize and simplify their disclosures and inform consumers more effectively. Cooperation partner is the University of Amsterdam. Funding institution is the DFG.

Climate Change Sceptics. Patterns of Argumentation and Psychosocial Background

The project “Climate Change Sceptics. Patterns of Argumentation and Psychosocial Background” is a part of CMI’s research on sustainability and social networking. The topic of climate change is of legal relevance against the background of the recent increase in national and international environmental protection legislation. The project investigates why the communication of knowledge about climate change is opposed by some citizens. The research project particularly focuses on the mental, psychosocial and unconscious reasons for climate skepticism. Cooperation partner is the Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin). Funding institution is the DBU.

Health Care Contracting in the Philippines

The project accompanies and supports the implementation of the new Philippine UHC Act. Jointly with Ateneo de Manila University, CMI Berlin explores the environment and the requirements of health care contracting in the Philippines and undertakes the development of instruments that ensure quality, cost-efficient and equitable delivery of health care services. The project follows a multi-discipline approach combining economic, sociological, legal and health care expertise.

Research Partner and Funding Institutions

Research Team

Prof. Dr. jur. Ralph Schuhmann, Prof. Dr. Farzaneh Soleimani Zoghi, Prof. Dr. jur. Bert Eichhorn (front, left to right)

Dr. Ognyan Seizov, M.A. Frank Wittig, Prof. Dr. iur. Dr. rer. pol. Alexander J. Wulf, Prof. Dr. Franz Hessel (back, left to right)

Board Members

Prof. Dr. jur. Bert Eichhorn, Prof. Dr. jur. Ralph Schuhmann, and Prof. Dr. iur. Dr. rer. pol. Alexander J. Wulf (left to right)

Your Contact Persons

Executive Director (left)

Prof. Dr. jur. Bert Eichhorn
Telephone +49 (0)30 374 374-510
E-Mail CMI:

Scientific Director (right)

Prof. Dr. jur. Ralph Schuhmann
E-Mail CMI: